CommodoreMarch 2, 2021
Commodore International (other names include Commodore International Limited, or just simply Commodore) was an American home computer and electronics manufacturer founded by Jack Tramiel. Commodore International (CI), along with its subsidiary Commodore Business Machines (CBM), was a significant participant in the development of the home personal computer industry in the 1970s and 1980s.
The company developed and marketed the world’s best-selling desktop computer, the Commodore 64 (1982), and released its Amiga computer line in July 1985. With quarterly sales ending 1983 of $49 million (equivalent to $108 million in 2019), Commodore was one of the world’s largest personal computer manufacturers
The Commodore PET
The Commodore PET is a line of personal computers produced starting in 1977 by Commodore International.
The system combined a MOS 6502 microprocessor, Commodore BASIC in read-only memory (ROM), a keyboard, a computer monitor and (in early models) a cassette deck for data and program storage in a single all-in-one case. Development of the system began in 1976 and a prototype was demonstrated in January 1977 at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES).
You can find various versions of the PET and many parts on Ebay from the links below.
Also check out a modern version of the PET called The mini PET DIY Kit.
There is also a mini PET B replacement motherboard
The Commodore VIC-20
The Commodore VIC-20 (known as the VC-20 in Germany and the VIC-1001 in Japan) is an 8-bit home computer that was sold by Commodore Business Machines. The VIC-20 was announced in 1980, roughly three years after Commodore’s first personal computer, the PET.
The VIC-20 was the first computer of any description to sell one million units. It was described as “one of the first anti-spectatorial, non-esoteric computers by design…no longer relegated to hobbyist/enthusiasts or those with money, the computer Commodore developed was the computer of the future.”
The VIC-20 was called VC-20 in Germany because the pronunciation of VIC with a German accent sounds like the German expletives “fick” or “wichsen”. The term VC was marketed as though it was an abbreviation of VolksComputer (“people’s computer,” similar to Volkswagen.
The Commodore 64
The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, 7–10 January 1982, in Las Vegas).
It has been listed in the Guinness World Records as the highest-selling single computer model of all time, with independent estimates placing the number sold between 12.5 and 17 million units.
This claim is in spite of the Commodore 64 having three different Kernal ROM versions, two different SID sound chip versions, a few different motherboard versions and two different cases during its lifetime.
Volume production started in early 1982, marketing in August for US$595 (equivalent to $1,576 in 2019)
The Commodore 64C
The Commodore 64C (or C64C for short) is a redesign of the successful Commodore 64.
Due to the light color scheme and the slim case, it can be easily distinguished from the original C64 (“Breadbox”). The official name was C64C, although in Germany the magazine 64’er used the name C64 II, which continues to be used among German enthusiasts.
There are no major hardware differences between the C64C and the original C64, and the units are largely identical in terms of graphics, sound, processor speed, interfaces and RAM size.
The Commodore 16
The Commodore 16 is a home computer made by Commodore International with a 6502-compatible 7501 or 8501 CPU, released in 1984 and intended to be an entry-level computer to replace the VIC-20. A cost-reduced version, the Commodore 116, was mostly sold in Europe.
The C16 and C116 belong to the same family as the higher-end and are internally very similar to it (albeit with less RAM – 16 rather than 64 KB – and lacking the Plus/4’s user port and Three plus one software). Software is generally compatible among all three provided it can fit within the C16’s smaller RAM and does not utilize the user port on the Plus/4.
While the C16 was a failure on the US market, it enjoyed some success in certain European countries and Mexico.
The Commodore Plus/4 is a home computer released by Commodore International in 1984. The “Plus/4” name refers to the four-application ROM resident office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, database, and graphing); it was billed as “the productivity computer with software built-in.”
Internally, the Plus/4 shared the same basic architecture as the lower-end Commodore 16 and 116 models, and was able to use software and peripherals designed for them. The Plus/4 was incompatible with the Commodore 64’s software and some of its hardware. Although the Commodore 64 was more established, the Plus/4 was aimed at the more business oriented part of the personal computer market.
While the Plus/4 had some success in Europe, it was a failure in the United States, where it was derided as the “Minus/60”.
The Commodore 128
The Commodore 128, also known as the C128, C-128, C= 128, is the last 8-bit home computer that was commercially released by Commodore Business Machines (CBM).
Introduced in January 1985 at the CES in Las Vegas, it appeared three years after its predecessor, the bestselling Commodore 64.
The C128 is a significantly expanded successor to the C64, with nearly full compatibility. The newer machine has 128 KB of RAM in two 64 KB banks, and an 80-column color video output.
It has a redesigned case and keyboard. Also included is a Zilog Z80 CPU which allows the C128 to run CP/M, as an alternative to the usual Commodore BASIC environment.
The presence of the Z80 and the huge CP/M software library it brings, coupled with the C64’s software library, gives the C128 one of the broadest ranges of available software among its competitors.
The Commodore 128d
Late in 1985, Commodore released to the European market a new version of the C128 with a redesigned chassis resembling the Amiga 1000.
Called the Commodore 128D, this new European model features a plastic chassis with a carrying handle on the side, incorporates a 1571 disk drive into the main chassis, replaces the built-in keyboard with a detachable one, and adds a cooling fan.
The keyboard features two folding legs for changing the typing angle.
The Commodore Amiga 500
The Amiga 500, also known as the A500, is the first low-end version of the Amiga home computer. It contains the same Motorola 68000 as the Amiga 1000, as well as the same graphics and sound coprocessors, but is in a smaller case similar to that of the Commodore 128,
Commodore announced the Amiga 500 at the January 1987 winter Consumer Electronics Show – at the same time as the high-end Amiga 2000. It was initially available in the Netherlands in April 1987, then the rest of Europe in May. In North America and the UK it was released in October 1987 with a US$699/£499 list price. It competed directly against models in the Atari ST line.
The Amiga 500 was sold in the same retail outlets as the Commodore 64, as opposed to the computer store-only Amiga 1000. It proved to be Commodore’s best-selling model, particularly in Europe.
Although popular with hobbyists, arguably its most widespread use was as a gaming machine, where its graphics and sound were of significant benefit.
The Commodore Amiga 600
The Amiga 600, also known as the A600, is a home computer introduced in March 1992.
It is the final Amiga model based on the Motorola 68000 and the 1990 Amiga Enhanced Chip Set. A redesign of the Amiga 500 Plus, it adds the option of an internal hard disk drive and a PCMCIA port. Lacking a numeric keypad, the A600 is only slightly larger than an IBM PC keyboard and weighing approximately 6 pounds.
It shipped with AmigaOS 2.0, which was considered more user-friendly than earlier versions of the operating system.
Like the A500, the A600 was aimed at the lower end of the market. Commodore intended it to revitalize sales of the A500-related line before the introduction of the 32-bit Amiga 1200. According to Dave Haynie, the A600 “was supposed to be US$50–60 cheaper than the A500, but it came in at about that much more expensive.”
The A600 was originally to have been numbered the A300, positioning it as a lower-budget version of the Amiga 500 Plus.
The Commodore Amiga 1200
The Amiga 1200, or A1200 (code-named “Channel Z”), is a personal computer in the Amiga computer family released by Commodore International, aimed at the home computer market. It was launched on October 21, 1992, at a base price of £399 in the United Kingdom (equivalent to £832 in 2019) and $599 in the United States (equivalent to $1,091 in 2019).
The A1200 was launched a few months after the Amiga 600, using a similar slimline design that replaced the earlier Amiga 500 Plus and Amiga 500. Whereas the A600 used the 16-bit Motorola 68000 of earlier Amigas, the A1200 was built around the faster and more powerful Motorola 68EC020. Physically, the A1200 is an all-in-one design incorporating the CPU, keyboard, and disk drives (including the option of an internal 2.5″ hard disk drive) in one physical unit. The A1200 has a similar hardware architecture to Commodore’s Amiga CD32 game console.
The Commodore Amiga 1000
The Commodore Amiga 1000, also known as the A1000 and originally marketed as the Amiga, is the first personal computer released by Commodore International in the Amiga line.
It combines the 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 CPU which was powerful by 1985 standards with one of the most advanced graphics and sound systems in its class, and runs a preemptive multitasking operating system that fits into 256 KB of read-only memory and shipped with 256 KB of RAM.
The primary memory can be expanded internally with a manufacturer-supplied 256 KB module for a total of 512 KB of RAM. Using the external slot the primary memory can be expanded up to 8.5 MB